Lots of Newness in My Musical Life

This summer has been productive!  Although my family had to temporarily sacrifice our vegetable garden due to moving, I would say that my musical garden has been robust!

I was honored to be asked by CBS Denver to give Wednesday's Child LeShea a voice lesson.  LeShea was so earnest, sweet and hard working that it was a pleasure to work with her.  I wish for her to find the family of her dreams.  Anybody would be lucky to have LeShea in their lives.  Watch the clip that aired on the morning show on channel 7.

I've also been busy working on a deeply personal musical endeavor, The Molly Growler Project.  What started out as an outlet during a difficult time has morphed into a three-piece band.  I'm the primary songwriter, something new for me, but the other band members have powerful musical voices to contribute.  We played our first show as a full band recently and it felt empowering, uplifting and communal.  All the good stuff about putting a band together and just getting out there with it.  Check out the bandcamp page for recordings.

I also put together a little jazz duo that consists of myself and guitarist Aaron Summerfield.  It's a mellow, stripped down sort of jazz that's been really fun to perform.  We played a few gigs at the ModMarket in Highlands Ranch and I made a short video of it.

The full jazz band (which is now between band names) I've been singing with for a few years finally finished mastering our demo.  Crazy how these things can take a while to complete!  Two of my favorite tracks are loaded on the sounds page of this here website.  Here is the direct link.  Listen to the tunes at the very top.

If you would like to catch any of my performances be sure to check the regularly updated calendar.  Be sure to say hi when you stop by.

I'm feeling especially grateful for all these opportunities that have come my way recently.  Many friends, students and family have come out to support my performances.  I feel all warm and gooey inside thanks to them.  It makes me want to keep on keepin' on.


Friday Lessons: Olympic Prep



Getting ready to perform, be in sports or music, takes a great deal of preparation.  It's tempting to look for the perfect workout or the tried and true regimen.  

I've been thinking about this while watching the Olympics this past week.  Surely the greatest athletes in the world, who also have access to the greatest training, and training facilities, in the world have it down to a science.  But what I noticed on the sidelines was that the way to getting ready to perform was as varied as the individual athlete.

This was particularly evident in the swimming competitions.  While some competitors paced back and forth on the desk, hopping slightly, rotating their neck muscles, listening to music, pumping up teammates, and shaking their arms out, others, notably Michael Phelps, tuned all the chaos out.  In fact, his preparation game face was so severe it made me shiver in my flippers.

Sometimes singers are looking for the warm-up that will get them to a great performance of a song.  In reality there is no steadfast rule for how you should warm-up, what warm-ups you should do, or for how long.

Much like olympic athletes, your goal is to build an awareness of your own body and then create the regimen that your body likes.  

As singers our bodies are our instruments.  Your voice teacher can give you exercises to try out and suggestions for areas to target, but ultimately your body will tell you when and how much to do.

Here are some things to ask yourself as you build up your voice and your individualized routine:

  • What time of day works for me to do my warm-up?
    • Think about the schedule you normally keep.  If you wake up very early in the morning, then early morning might not be a good time to dig into some heavy vocal lifting.  However, you might want to do some gentle warming-up for a few minutes first thing in the morning and then do some more targeted exercises later in the afternoon.  There is no rule about when you warm-up, or even that you do your entire warm-up in one go.  
    • After I had my baby I had to squeeze in practice whenever I could and expect to be interrupted.  I began to do 5 minutes here, 10 minutes there throughout my day and it worked for me.  Think about what makes sense for you, and listen to your body.  It will tell you if the schedule feels right, or is overly taxing.
  • How much space between warming up and singing songs feels the best to me?
    • There is no rule that says singing songs should be immediately preceded by warming-up.  Sometimes, with time constraints this is the only option, but consider warming-up then doing other activities for a while and returning to your repertoire.  
    • I like to warm-up for about 20 minutes and then let my voice rest for about 30.  Play around with some different time periods and see what feels best.
  • How long of a warm-up fits my voice?
    • Some singers prefer an extended warm-up of 20+ minutes.  Some singers feel great after 5.  Sometimes it depends on the day.  For example, if my breathing is feeling shallow I'll tack on about 5 minutes of breathing exercises that build into the vocalizing.  
    • If I'm getting ready for a lengthy performance I don't want to overdo it on the warm-up so I'll limit it to about 5 to 8 minutes.  But, if I'm really trying to target specific areas of my voice on a non-performing day I'll spend 20 to 30 minutes on exercises.
  • What kind of exercises feel the best for my voice?
    • There are many, many variations on a vocal exercise.  As you progress through lessons with an instructor you'll pick up all sorts of ideas for exercises.  Your teacher may even have specific recommendations for your voice.  Every voice responds uniquely to each and every exercise.  Pay attention to exercises that feel like they loosen the instrument and get it ready to sing.  A few examples of the kinds of exercises you might incorporate into your practice are: slides, scales, arpeggios, staccato patterns, small intervals, large intervals, working from head voice to chest voice, and working from chest voice to head voice.  Likewise, remember that all exercises can be done on a lip trill, a hum, any vowel, and any consonant, or no consonants at all.  
    • For example, I like to start with a sliding exercise on a lip trill to loosen up my constriction (we all have some!), then I like to work with arpeggios across the entirety of my range.  I might tack on a cool down exercise like descending on a simple syllable with an easy vocal production.  This routine does a good job of getting my voice into a comfortable place for singing my favorite tunes.

The vocal work-out that you do on your own is as unique as yourself.  Your instrument will give you a lot of information when you listen to it.  Your body knows what feels good and what feels like strain.

You want to push yourself, but never to the point of fatigue or strain.  Try new things with your voice.  You are encouraged to experiment.  You may find new exercises that feel just right to you.  You may also find that some exercises you've learned in lessons work better for you than others - that's ok.

With the guidance of your instructor, you'll also better understand what areas of the voice you want to target.  Your instructor will help you to identify areas of strength and weakness and how to balance those out.  But much like the doctor-patient relationship, this process can only work when you bring all of your personal awareness to the table and are ready to workshop your instrument collaboratively.

The point of warming up is to get you prepared to do whatever Olympic-esque vocal performance you're working towards.  Be it singing at karaoke night or fronting a band, your voice will thank you for treating it like a professional athlete.

Whatever works for you works.

I just had to finish with a Phelps game face.

I just had to finish with a Phelps game face.

Friday Lessons are where I talk about practicing, performing and other aspects of being a life-long learner of music.  Appearing most Fridays.

The Sunday Listens: New Santigold

This week we're gonna talk about how brilliant Santigold is.

Ok, I'm not really gonna go on a diatribe about her artistic merit, but I will say that her newest album, 99¢, which came out 2 weeks ago, is a really fun descent into pop mutations.  Frankly, it's been my only jam for the past week.  Carribean dancehall meets 80's pop meets contemporary hip hop.  I hear everything from Siouxsie Sioux to Erykah Badu.  Intrigued?  Buy it here.

What I do want to talk about is how wonderfully Santigold uses the full range of her voice in this album.  In fact, she gives us clear examples of the spectrum of her registration.  

Let's talk registration for a moment.  Loosely, this refers to head voice and chest voice, high notes and low notes, respectively.  Oftentimes singers blend these registers, singing in neither register exclusively.  However, Santigold has sections where she fully lives in each register, letting us hear the unique colors each register has to offer.  It is this type of tonal play that makes pop music so infectious and interesting to listen to.

In her song "Chasing Shadows" she layers to separate vocal lines during the chorus.  The primary one is sung in a chest dominant register while a head voice only line is superimposed on top.  The contrast between the two registers happening simultaneously creates a dynamic sound and helps to heighten the song overall.  Then, she comes in on the second verse singing, again, in an exclusively head register.  Her voice sounds very pretty, for lack of a better adjective, and the vocal line has an opportunity to float over the bass and drums.  Check it out and let me know what you hear:

The track, "Before the Fire", opens with a darker sound than much of the rest of the album.  The lyrics hint at personal struggle, be it in romantic love or life's purpose.  To accentuate this, she sings in a full, heavy, chest voice registration.  On the chorus, with its held-out notes, it becomes almost a full belt.  This song has serious feels and it comes through because of the choice she made for vocal placement.  What do you think?

Conveying artistry and emotion as a singer is often about making smart choices in how we use our voice.  I appreciate vocalists who give us a wide range of vocal colors and textures, like Santigold.  Listening to how our favorite singers use their voice will help us to create dynamic, emotional music that reaches our audience.

Who are some dynamic singers that inspire you?  Let me know in the comments.

Getting Through Cold Season Still Singing

Wintertime can be divided into two halves: the period leading up to and including the holidays, then the anguishing period of waiting for spring to finally rescue us from the doldrums.  It is this latter half that really tests our immune systems.  It seems as though right around now, February, everyone we know has some kind of cold.

Upper respiratory illnesses can be disastrous for singers.  It can quickly ruin our plans to head into the studio, play a show, or even keep up with our practice schedule.  My students often ask me this time of year, what they can do when the ubiquitous "winter cold" strikes.  Here's a short list of some of my favorite comforts, remedies and preventatives:

  1. Sleep, Hydration and Relaxation.  It's what our parents told us, but as adults it still bears reminding.  It can take a great deal of effort to set aside our responsibilities to co-workers, children, clients, spouses and the world at large, but even a temporary leave of absence on some of your duties can make a big difference.  Try to set aside a moment to read a book in the bathtub.  Turn your phone off and tell your family to give you an hour.  Stress and fatigue will lengthen your illness, and often cause it.  Hasten your recovery by taking some "me-time."
  2. Avoid Caffeine and Alcohol.  I love a cup of coffee in the morning and a glass of wine in the evening, but these stimulants not only compromise your already taxed immune system, but they dehydrate your mucus membranes.  It is imperative to keep your sinus cavities, and their silia which help move the illness out of your body, hydrated.  Below are some suggestions for alternatives to your favorite grown-up treats.
  3. Throat Coat Tea.  This tea is delicious and it does exactly as the name advertises - it coats your throat.  It includes naturally soothing ingredients such as licorice root and marshmallow root, which become viscous when steeped.  I drink this when I am well too!
  4. Homemade Chai.  Sure, you can buy some chai at a coffee shop, or get those flavored tea bags at the store, but this is not the real deal.  My husband learned to make chai from an Indian family he played music with in Texas.  He grates fresh ginger into the boiling water, and this makes all the difference.  Ginger is not only an immune booster, but it is a natural stimulant.  Combined with the gentle tasting black tea, this will keep you feeling awake and energized without the come down effect of coffee.  I switched completely to chai while I was pregnant and did not get sick once!  Here is the recipe my husband uses:

      • Boil half a pot of water, add freshly grated ginger (peeled or not is up to you) and freshly ground cardamon pods including the husks (loosely crush them in a mortar, just enough to open the pods)

        • You can add ground black pepper, white pepper, cloves, cinnamon, mint or other spices if they sound good to you and you have them in house.  The basic recipe is plenty delicious on it's own but the above spices have their own medicinal properties as well.
      • Add a few Tbsp of loose leaf black tea (amount depends upon your taste), we like to buy Mamri tea from the Indian market because it tastes great, but we've used Lipton in a pinch.
      • After boiling for 5 minutes or so, reduce heat to low and fill the rest of the pot with milk.  Stir frequently to prevent scalding.
      • Strain into cups.
      • Add a sweetener of your choice, or none at all.
  5. Coconut, Chicken Broth Soup.  This is loaded with good stuff, it's easy to make and delicious!  Here's the recipe:
      • Heat on low equal parts chicken broth (homemade is best!) and coconut milk.
      • Add fresh lime juice and chopped cilantro.
      • Eat!
  6. The Neti Pot.  This can be looked to as a preventative as well as an ameliorative.  They can be purchased at health food stores as can the water-soluble solution.  I make my own using 2 cups boiled water and 1/2 tsp finely ground sea salt.  I wait for the mixture to cool to body temperature.  Other solution recipes and information are here.  I am not a medical professional, however I have been using my neti pot for years and it has been a huge relief to my chronic allergies as well as the occasional cold.  When I am suffering from sinus trouble I use it once in the morning and once at night.  Be sure to disinfect the pot between use.
      • *It is very important that you use either boiled water or distilled water because tap water has some microscopic bacteria that can cause serious harm via the mucus membrane if not killed through treatment.  Information from the CDC can be found here.
  7. Salt Gargle, Steam Inhale. If the neti pot is not your thing then do a salt gargle with warm water several times a day for at least a minute each.  Without swallowing do your best to let the saltwater get to the back of your mouth.  You can also put your head under a towel and over a bowl of steaming water.  Add salt, baking soda or even tea tree oil to the water.  Breathe deeply.
  8. Limit Cough Syrup and Cough Drops.  Although these provide relief and can help you sleep when you have a bad cough, they work by numbing the vocal folds.  This can create a dangerous situation for singers because they may be fooled into thinking it's safe to sing, or talk, when it's not.  Remember, your body is sending you messages of pain for a reason.  Be sure to listen to it and avoid vocalizing, including talking through the day, as much as possible.
Next steps: Practice loving self-care!

The Fine Art of Vocal Improv

Five for Friday

As a jazz singer, I do a lot of vocal improv onstage.  Every time I do so I think of the lengthy history of vocal improv that I'm inheriting.  Here are just a few examples of vocal improv I find inspiring and astounding.

1. Ella Fitzgerald "How High The Moon"

In the case of jazz it's hard not to talk about the First Lady of Song, Ella Fitzgerald.  She transforms herself from just another singer to a fellow musician on stage.  It is captivating and engaging.  She performed "How High the Moon" throughout her career.  It's worth watching videos of her from early on as well as renditions from when she was older.  She constantly changed and shifted her interpretation, bringing fresh ideas to the bandstand up until she was no longer able to perform.  Damn, lady!

2. Al Jarreau "Take Five"

Al Jarreau stormed onto the jazz scene in the 70's and brought with him a new style of scatting, one that incorporates vocal percussions.  Things I love about this version: the bright sounding Rhodes keyboard, and the command Al has over this song, making it something new and interesting at every moment.  It's notable that he's able to convert an instrumental tune (originally Dave Brubeck) into a vocal tune.  Something I rarely enjoy in jazz, but this one stands the test of time.

3. Bobby McFerrin "Improvisation"

Bobby McFerrin picked up what Al Jarreau threw down and took it to the edge.  Here, he creates a complex composition using only the human voice.  He uses the audience to help orchestrate different parts.  This frees him to improv widely varying ideas.  He turns down melodic paths that are quite unexpected.  I heard him once say that when he was a young singer he would practice scales and arpeggios much like a horn player would.  Over and over again he would drill the various seven-chords and all of the modes.  That kind of focus and determination is noteworthy amongst singers, but the product sings for itself.

4.  Amita Sinha Mahapatra "Raga Jaunpuri"

Improvisation was not invented by jazz musicians.  The idea of making new musical compositions in the moment is something that probably goes back to our cave ancestry.  The traditions of Northern Indian Classical music call for a composition to be stated and then freely interpreted by the performer.  Here, Amita Sinha Mahapatra elaborates upon a Raga Jaunpuri by letting herself surrender to the music itself.  The effect is trancelike, yet very similar to what jazz musicians eventually also brought to the table.

5. Natalie Dessay "V'adoro Pupille"

While Northern Indian Classical is the one of the oldest currently existing forms of musical improvisation, the practice also extends back to the Baroque era.  In Handel's day it was common to include da capo arias in operas.  The form of the da capo aria is strikingly similar to the jazz form.  The aria "V'adoro Pupille" from Handel's Guilio Cesare has an AABA form.  After the aria has been sung as written in it's entirety, also referred to as the head in jazz, the singer reprises the A section but with elaborations.  Here Natalie Dessay makes a wide departure from the head with many melismas and as many high notes as possible.

Bookmark This! 7 Music Blogs for Musicians

There are several music blogs I like to visit regularly because they are both interesting and inspiring.  Check them all out; bookmark them!

1.  Joyce DiDonato Video Blog

Joyce DiDonato is one of the most successful living opera singers in the world.  I beg you to listen to her doing anything Baroque.  It will melt all of your sensibilities and leave you tingling for no apparent reason.  Such a visceral reaction can only occur when beauty inhibits rationale.  But I digress.  In addition to her busy schedule of singing with, for example, The Met, Joyce has an active video blog on YouTube.  She tackles all sorts of topics from how to deal with loneliness on the road to advice on breathing technique.  This is an excellent opportunity for us to receive vocal advice from a premiere performer at a reasonable rate: free.  Here is her video of breathing technique:

2.  The Bulletproof Musician
This is a blog focusing on practicing practices for musicians. Dr. Noa Kageyama is on the faculty of Julliard and has combined his knowledge of music with psychology to break down how we can make the most of our time in the practice room.  One of the articles I particularly liked was: Why the Progress You Make in the Practice Room Seems to Disappear Overnight  I've since embraced a random sequence of tasks while practicing - trust the Dr. on this one.

3.  Do The Math
This is a great, all-around blog by musician Ethan Iverson.  He is the pianist of The Bad Plus - a band I'm really digging these days.  He writes about musicians he respects, and musical ideas or techniques he's working on.  It seems as though lately he's been lamenting his poor trills.  Something I wholeheartedly relate to.  If he thinks trills are difficult on the piano, perhaps he should try vocal trills - an entirely different beast.  Here is a video of The Bad Plus, because they're just wonderful to listen to:

4.  The Talk House
A blog where musicians write about music.  So obvious it's brilliant.  The range of albums that are reviewed is broad and the writing superb.

5.  Jessica Hopper's tumblr
Jessica Hopper is one of my favorite music journalists.  She writes for Spin, Rolling Stone, Pitchfork and various other online publications.  Her observations are always trenchant and she seems to know everything about music you wish you did.  Her tumblr account is particularly entertaining and random, albeit somewhat colorful.

6.  Music History in gifs
Exactly what is sounds like.  A perfect way to waste time on the internet - when that's your goal, of course.

7.  French Torch Singer Radio
This may be the only station that Pandora is unable to provide you.  A 24/7 stream of classic, French torch singers singing classic French torch songs.  It's makes a lazy weekend morning feel decadent.  An added bonus if you can read in French are the factoids throughout the website about various French musicians.

8.  Sybil Vane's Twitter Feed
Ok, an extra recommendation - my own twitter account.  Follow my stage personality, Sybil Vane, on twitter @sybilvanesings .  I'm figuring out this whole hashtag thing, posting about gigs, band goings-on, and other musical things of interest.

Some Thoughts on the Movie "Pitch Perfect" and the Word "Pitchy"

I struggle with students who use the word "pitchy" to describe their own sound because it is imprecise, and unhelpful to singers.  It is my goal to help people sing better - something I believe anybody can do.  These pop culture trends have generated some myths for singers, and would-be singers, and I intend to do my part to dispel them.  Everyone deserves to feel like learning to sing is an opportunity available to them, especially if it's something they want to do.

Pitch Perfect

Alright, "Pitch Perfect" is just a comedy. One can't take it too seriously.  That is, until singers cite it as an influence on their singing.  Don't get me wrong, enjoying musical films is a great way to get turned onto the craft of singing (for me it was "Newsies"), but there are some erroneous assumptions that the movie "Pitch Perfect", in particular, enables.  Let me debunk some of these myths about singing that have come into my studio:

1. Perfectly harmonized mash ups of 80's songs can be composed and performed on the spot.  Good harmony and voice leading is the work of sensitive and skilled arrangers.  In fact, many people have built careers upon arranging well-known songs to suit vocal harmony.  These pieces are performed by well-rehearsed choirs under the tutelage of a skilled choral conductor.  Sure, bluegrass bands like the Carter Family were known for whipping out pleasing 3-part harmony to old folk tunes, but they were raised to harmonize with one another and furthermore grew up singing the very songs that they later recorded beloved versions of.  It just isn't possible that college students with varying backgrounds and little experience working together would do anything like this:

2.  To learn a song, you really just need to sing along with the original recording a few times.  Listening to a song you love and singing along can sometimes be helpful, but many young singers do not know whether they are singing the correct pitch or not.  Matching pitch is not something that comes naturally to everybody, but is something that can be learned with the help of an instructor.  Hearing pitch is also an underestimated skill, particularly for singers.  Instrumentalists learn to hear pitches as sharp, flat, or centered early on.  Guitarists, for example, must learn how to tune their instrument by ear.  Singers are at a serious disadvantage because they do not need to press keys or fret strings in order to hit, say, an E.  But, knowing whether your pitch is centered is key to interpreting a song well.  When you learn a song only by singing along to a recording, you are highly likely to memorize inaccurate rhythms and pitches - something that is far more difficult to undo down the road than to have learned it accurately from the beginning.  The movie "Pitch Perfect" never shows any character doing vocal warm-ups, looking at sheet music, or rehearsing parts and adjusting mistakes before hitting the stage.  Sure, that would make for a really boring scene in what is in reality a silly movie, but many of my students have erroneously thought that they would be ready to hit the stage after having listened to a song on repeat on their iPods.  Nope, real singers work real hard.  We're talking about hours and hours of practice.  Even your favorite pop stars maintain exhausting schedules of rehearsal and vocal coaching.

3. Great singers either just have "it" or they don't.  A few of the main characters in the movie indicate that they have never sung with any kind of group before.  They seem to just show up to the auditions with professional sounding voices, and "Wow!"  The actors who sing in this movie have all had careers as singers, and have trained many years to be able to do what they do.  Not to mention that the actors are all in their mid and late 20's.  Even an extraordinarily talented teen will still have to grow into their voice.  It takes time, practice, and the assistance of an instructor to discover what your unique voice can do and how you can use it.  Furthermore, teens' vocal folds are not fully developed.  For women, this won't happen until around the age of 30.  For men, vocal folds are said to be developed in their mid 20's.  Additionally, I believe that all aspiring singers can learn to sing great no matter the level of natural ability they enter the studio with.  Again, time, training and practice are the keys to success.

4. The term "Perfect pitch," means you sing really well.  Actually, musicians generally take "perfect pitch" to mean that a person can identify any pitch simply by hearing it, or that they could sing any pitch that is called out.  For example, if I played an Eb on a piano without the person looking at my hands, they would correctly identify the pitch.  Piano tuners may have perfect pitch.  I have met orchestra conductors who had perfect pitch.  It is a reflection of a musician so involved in their craft that they have acquired acutely sensitive hearing.  To them each possible pitch has a unique and distinct quality that identifies it apart from the other pitches.  I think it is important to clarify this special trait that a small number of musicians have.  A singer is actually working towards having accurate pitch, meaning the pitch they are singing sits harmoniously within the harmonic framework the band, or orchestra, is laying down.  In other words, when we notice that a note sung sounds very good with the notes the other musicians are playing.

"Pitch Perfect," is an entertaining, humorous film, (although, it's worth noting that the characters of color have little to no importance in the film which is a shame,) but it's not an example of the kind of trajectory one might have in their pursuit of becoming a singer.  The film's central plot is to show a singing group preparing for a competition, and that becomes the central problem to aspiring singers who might take a cue from the film - the preparation depicted is nothing like the real thing.


TV shows like "The Voice" and "American Idol" have popularized a word I have come to disdain hearing in my studio: Pitchy.  I began hearing this word about a year ago from students of all ages and wasn't sure what the students meant by it.  It's not a particularly specific term and certainly isn't used by any musicians I know.   Sometime after hearing this word used by students, I went to my mom's house one night.  We watched several episodes of "The Voice" together and I solved the mystery.

I'm not a historian or an etymologist, but I believe the term "pitchy" was invented by Randy Jackson circa 2010.

Let me tease out the problematic implications of powerful music executives throwing this word out on TV as though is were any kind of helpful critique:

1. That the term "pitchy" is synonymous with "off-pitch."  In episodes of these singing programs I have watched, judges occasionally use the term pitchy when in fact the singer is not off-pitch, and neglect using it when a singer is off-pitch.  This indicates that the judges are not, in fact, helping a singer to know when they are singing slightly off-pitch.  It would be helpful for the judges to identity pitch problems for a singer so that the singer could address the specific issue, but the judges seem to be referring to pitch problems only some of the time.  Without clarification the singer is woefully lost in how to improve.

2. Confusing the term "pitchy" with a quality of tone production.  In many cases, I believe what the judges are trying to communicate to the singer, is that their tone production is poor, or an inappropriate choice for the repertoire.  For example, a singer may have an overly nasal tone.  Singers on these programs tend to push, or strain, their voices in order to sound louder and this can create a "brassy" or stressed tone, which is not pleasant to the listener.  A singer may want to create a different tone for a sad, country ballad than an uptempo pop song.  A singer must choose carefully what sort of tone quality the song calls for.  Audiences are very perceptive to these details even if they are not able to clearly articulate their tastes and preferences.  If something is off, the lay person may be prone to say it sounds "pitchy," but again, this does not help the singer clearly identify the issue in order to correct it.

The solution to the term "pitchy" would be to use more specific critiques and comments with a singer.

1. Singers are frequently off-pitch - even the most famous singers today and in the past were occasionally off-pitch.  The voice is a vulnerable instrument and many factors can contribute to the pitch being slightly off.  A more helpful critique would be to let the singer know if they are sharp (a bit high) or flat (a bit low) so the singer can consciously raise or lower their pitch.  Voice teachers are trained to recognize the causes of faulty pitch, whether it is due to breath support (the most common reason), vocal strain, a poor/closed mouth position, or even merely fatigue.  By identifying clearly where the pitch is off and the probable cause, a singer can quickly and easily make adjustments.

2. Singers must discover through experience, practice, and the guidance of a vocal coach or teacher, what tones they naturally produce and how they can alter these tones.  This is not only a stylistic matter, but a technical one as well.  Many young singers are still developing their registers and have not learned how to blend them.  This can create poor tone quality as singers try to sing high notes with too much chest, or low notes with too much head.  Likewise, young singers sometimes do not trust how loud their voice actually is and can be inclined to push their vocal folds beyond their capability.  Not only does this produce an unpleasant tone, but it can cause permanent damage to the delicate folds.  With appropriate guidance from a teacher or coach, the singer will learn how to rely on physical sensations to create specific tones rather than what they think they hear in their head.  A good teacher will make specific suggestions as to a change in posture, mouth, head, tongue, etc.  A good teacher will also guide singers through the process of blending registers so that the singer has a stronger control over their own voice.

If you are an aspiring singer, I can't urge you enough to find a voice teacher that you feel compatible with.  Don't fall for the modern pop singer mythology - singing takes work, practice, passion and the help of experienced instructors.

Next Steps: Make a bowl of popcorn and enjoy pop movies just for what they are - entertainment.